WebRFC SMTP October o Editorial and clarification changes to RFC  to bring that specification to Draft blogger.com obsoletes RFC , RFC , RFC , and RFC and updates RFC (replacing the mail transport materials of RFC ).However, RFC specifies some features that were not in significant use in the Internet by the WebIn a binary cycle geothermal power plant, the water is pumped from the geothermal reservoir via a heat exchanger, where it heats isobutene. Steam or water reservoirs under the earth's surface are never directly in contact with turbines in the binary cycle. Globally, most geothermal areas contain moderate temperatures (below °F) Web20/10/ · From payment apps to budgeting and investing tools and alternative credit options, fintech makes it easier for consumers to pay for their purchases and build better financial habits. Nearly half of fintech users say their finances are better due to fintech and save more than $50 a month on interest and fees. Fintech also arms small businesses WebIn Ethtool Options, you can set ethtool options used by ifup for the interface. For information about available options, see the ethtool manual page. If the option string starts with a - (for example, -K INTERFACE_NAME rx on), the second word in the string is replaced with the current interface name Web22/03/ · Re: Sowget Exchanger: Bitcoin, Perfect Money, Deriv, USDT, PayPal, Skrill, AstroPay by macphilip: am On Apr 29 Your mindset has a direct impact on how you perform in life as well as the quality of the results you get ... read more
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving. Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters. Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans. This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population.
Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California. Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler.
The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones. The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete.
Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e.
Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household. Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called.
Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.
Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.
The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide.
The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing.
We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member.
We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics.
The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic.
October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish. Margin of error ±3. Percentages may not add up to due to rounding. Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Gavin Newsom is handling his job as governor of California?
Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that the California Legislature is handling its job? Do you think things in California are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction? Thinking about your own personal finances—would you say that you and your family are financially better off, worse off, or just about the same as a year ago?
Next, some people are registered to vote and others are not. Are you absolutely certain that you are registered to vote in California? Are you registered as a Democrat, a Republican, another party, or are you registered as a decline-to-state or independent voter? Would you call yourself a strong Republican or not a very strong Republican?
Do you think of yourself as closer to the Republican Party or Democratic Party? Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in? Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. It allows in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, and requires that racetracks and casinos that offer sports betting to make certain payments to the state—such as to support state regulatory costs.
The fiscal impact is increased state revenues, possibly reaching tens of millions of dollars annually. Some of these revenues would support increased state regulatory and enforcement costs that could reach the low tens of millions of dollars annually.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 26? Initiative Constitutional Amendment. It allows Indian tribes and affiliated businesses to operate online and mobile sports wagering outside tribal lands.
It directs revenues to regulatory costs, homelessness programs, and nonparticipating tribes. Some revenues would support state regulatory costs, possibly reaching the mid-tens of millions of dollars annually.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 27? Initiative Statute. It allocates tax revenues to zero-emission vehicle purchase incentives, vehicle charging stations, and wildfire prevention.
If the election were held today, would you vote yes or no on Proposition 30? Do you agree or disagree with these statements?
Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way that Joe Biden is handling his job as president? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Alex Padilla is handling his job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way Dianne Feinstein is handling her job as US Senator? Overall, do you approve or disapprove of the way the US Congress is handling its job? Do you think things in the United States are generally going in the right direction or the wrong direction?
How satisfied are you with the way democracy is working in the United States? Are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied? These days, do you feel [rotate]  optimistic [or]  pessimistic that Americans of different political views can still come together and work out their differences?
What is your opinion with regard to race relations in the United States today? Would you say things are [rotate 1 and 2]  better ,  worse , or about the same than they were a year ago? When it comes to racial discrimination, which do you think is the bigger problem for the country today—[rotate]  People seeing racial discrimination where it really does NOT exist [or]  People NOT seeing racial discrimination where it really DOES exist?
Next, Next, would you consider yourself to be politically: [read list, rotate order top to bottom]. Generally speaking, how much interest would you say you have in politics—a great deal, a fair amount, only a little, or none?
Mark Baldassare is president and CEO of the Public Policy Institute of California, where he holds the Arjay and Frances Fearing Miller Chair in Public Policy. He is a leading expert on public opinion and survey methodology, and has directed the PPIC Statewide Survey since He is an authority on elections, voter behavior, and political and fiscal reform, and the author of ten books and numerous publications.
Before joining PPIC, he was a professor of urban and regional planning in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine, where he held the Johnson Chair in Civic Governance. He has conducted surveys for the Los Angeles Times , the San Francisco Chronicle , and the California Business Roundtable.
He holds a PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. Dean Bonner is associate survey director and research fellow at PPIC, where he coauthors the PPIC Statewide Survey—a large-scale public opinion project designed to develop an in-depth profile of the social, economic, and political attitudes at work in California elections and policymaking. He has expertise in public opinion and survey research, political attitudes and participation, and voting behavior. Before joining PPIC, he taught political science at Tulane University and was a research associate at the University of New Orleans Survey Research Center.
He holds a PhD and MA in political science from the University of New Orleans. Rachel Lawler is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team.
In that role, she led and contributed to a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies for both government and corporate clients.
She holds an MA in American politics and foreign policy from the University College Dublin and a BA in political science from Chapman University. Deja Thomas is a survey analyst at the Public Policy Institute of California, where she works with the statewide survey team. Prior to joining PPIC, she was a research assistant with the social and demographic trends team at the Pew Research Center. In that role, she contributed to a variety of national quantitative and qualitative survey studies.
She holds a BA in psychology from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. This survey was supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Ruben Barrales Senior Vice President, External Relations Wells Fargo. Mollyann Brodie Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Bruce E.
Cain Director Bill Lane Center for the American West Stanford University. Jon Cohen Chief Research Officer and Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and Business Development Momentive-AI. Joshua J. Dyck Co-Director Center for Public Opinion University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Lisa García Bedolla Vice Provost for Graduate Studies and Dean of the Graduate Division University of California, Berkeley.
Russell Hancock President and CEO Joint Venture Silicon Valley. Sherry Bebitch Jeffe Professor Sol Price School of Public Policy University of Southern California. Carol S. One of the challenges with traditional network interface management is that different layers of network management get jumbled together into one single script, or at most two different scripts. These scripts interact with each other in a way that is not well defined.
This leads to unpredictable issues, obscure constraints and conventions, etc. Several layers of special hacks for a variety of different scenarios increase the maintenance burden. Address configuration protocols are being used that are implemented via daemons like dhcpcd, which interact rather poorly with the rest of the infrastructure. Funky interface naming schemes that require heavy udev support are introduced to achieve persistent identification of interfaces.
The idea of wicked is to decompose the problem in several ways. None of them is entirely novel, but trying to put ideas from different projects together is hopefully going to create a better solution overall. This allows wicked to define standardized facilities for things like address configuration that are well integrated with the overall framework. For example, using a specific address configuration, the administrator may request that an interface should be configured via DHCP or IPv4 zeroconf.
In this case, the address configuration service simply obtains the lease from its server and passes it on to the wicked server process that installs the requested addresses and routes. The other approach to decomposing the problem is to enforce the layering aspect.
For any type of network interface, it is possible to define a dbus service that configures the network interface's device layer—a VLAN, a bridge, a bonding, or a paravirtualized device. Common functionality, such as address configuration, is implemented by joint services that are layered on top of these device specific services without having to implement them specifically. The wicked framework implements these two aspects by using a variety of dbus services, which get attached to a network interface depending on its type.
Here is a rough overview of the current object hierarchy in wicked. The name of the child object is given by its ifindex. By default, each network interface is of class netif , and wickedd will automatically attach all interfaces compatible with this class. In the current implementation, this includes the following interfaces:. Generic network interface functions, such as taking the link up or down, assigning an MTU, etc. Beyond this, network interfaces may require or offer special configuration mechanisms.
For an Ethernet device, for example, you should be able to control the link speed, offloading of checksumming, etc. To achieve this, Ethernet devices have a class of their own, called netif-ethernet , which is a subclass of netif. As a consequence, the dbus interfaces assigned to an Ethernet interface include all the services listed above, plus the org. Ethernet service available only to objects belonging to the netif-ethernet class.
Similarly, there exist classes for interface types like bridges, VLANs, bonds, or infinibands. How do you interact with an interface like VLAN which is really a virtual network interface that sits on top of an Ethernet device that needs to be created first?
For this, wicked defines factory interfaces, such as org. Such a factory interface offers a single function that lets you create an interface of the requested type. The wicked service comprises several parts as depicted in Figure An internal configuration back-end to represent network interface configuration in XML.
The nanny daemon enabled by default helps to automatically bring up configured interfaces when the device is available interface hotplugging and set up the IP configuration when a link carrier is detected. wicked was implemented as a group of DBus services that are integrated with systemd. So the usual systemctl commands will apply to wicked. On SUSE Linux Enterprise, wicked runs by default. If you want to check what is currently enabled and whether it is running, call:.
If wicked is enabled, you will see something along these lines:. In case something different is running for example, NetworkManager and you want to switch to wicked , first stop what is running and then enable wicked :.
This enables the wicked services, creates the network. service to wicked. service alias link, and starts the network at the next boot. This starts wickedd the main server and associated supplicants:. Use the client utility to display interface information for all interfaces or the interface specified with IFNAME :. xml :. compat: ifcfg files—implemented for compatibility. Whatever wicked gets from those sources for a given interface is applied.
The intended order of importance is firmware , then compat —this may be changed in the future. Nanny is an event and policy driven daemon that is responsible for asynchronous or unsolicited scenarios such as hotplugging devices. Thus the nanny daemon helps with starting or restarting delayed or temporarily gone devices. Nanny monitors device and link changes, and integrates new devices defined by the current policy set.
Nanny continues to set up even if ifup already exited because of specified timeout constraints. By default, the nanny daemon is active on the system.
xml configuration file:. This setting causes ifup and ifreload to apply a policy with the effective configuration to the nanny daemon; then, nanny configures wickedd and thus ensures hotplug support. It waits in the background for events or changes such as new devices or carrier on. For bonds and bridges, it may make sense to define the entire device topology in one file ifcfg-bondX , and bring it up in one go.
wicked then can bring up the whole configuration if you specify the top level interface names of the bridge or bond :. This command automatically sets up the bridge and its dependencies in the appropriate order without the need to list the dependencies ports, etc.
It permits to specify an optional device name to bind the tunnel to the device. The tunneled packets will only be routed via this device. With wicked , there is no need to actually take down an interface to reconfigure it unless it is required by the kernel. The server will try hard to update only those settings that have changed. This applies to link-level options such as the device MTU or the MAC address, and network-level settings, such as addresses, routes, or even the address configuration mode for example, when moving from a static configuration to DHCP.
Things get tricky of course with virtual interfaces combining several real devices such as bridges or bonds. For bonded devices, it is not possible to change certain parameters while the device is up. Doing that will result in an error. However, what should still work, is the act of adding or removing the child devices of a bond or bridge, or choosing a bond's primary interface. wicked is designed to be extensible with shell scripts.
These extensions can be defined in the config. xml file. link configuration: these are scripts responsible for setting up a device's link layer according to the configuration provided by the client, and for tearing it down again. address configuration: these are scripts responsible for managing a device's address configuration.
Usually address configuration and DHCP are managed by wicked itself, but can be implemented by means of extensions. Further, the declaration can define and initialize environment variables passed to the actions. You can extend the handling of configuration files with scripts as well. When an update arrives in wickedd , the system updater routines parse the lease and call the appropriate commands backup , install , etc.
in the resolver script. conf as a fallback. This section provides an overview of the network configuration files and explains their purpose and the format used.
xml file contains common definitions that should be used by all applications. xml for this purpose. xml might be overwritten. service and then run the following command to apply all configurations and policies:.
xml if their own configuration files do not exist. xml is read by the wickedd server process at start-up. On top of that this file configures handling of a resolver and receiving information from addrconf supplicants, for example DHCP. By using a separate file you avoid overwriting of your changes during maintenance updates.
xml is used by the wicked command. The file specifies the location of a script used when discovering devices managed by ibft and configures locations of network interface configurations. xml configures types of link layers. xml to avoid losing the changes during maintenance updates.
These files contain the traditional configurations for network interfaces. In SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 , this was the only supported format besides iBFT firmware. wicked reads these files if you specify the compat: prefix. The --ifconfig switch is provided mostly for testing only.
Possible parameters are described in the manual page of ifup. For configuring macvlan and macvtab interfaces, see the ifcfg-macvlan and ifcfg-macvtap man pages. For example, for a macvlan interface provide a ifcfg-macvlan0 with settings as follows:.
For ifcfg. template , see Section IBM Z IBM Z does not support USB. The names of the interface files and network aliases contain IBM Z-specific elements like qeth. The file config contains general settings for the behavior of ifup , ifdown and ifstatus. dhcp contains settings for DHCP and wireless for wireless LAN cards.
The variables in all three configuration files are commented. template file lists variables that can be specified in a per interface scope. In SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 , DHCPv6 used to work even on networks where IPv6 Router Advertisements RAs were not configured properly. Starting with SUSE Linux Enterprise 12 , DHCPv6 will correctly require that at least one of the routers on the network sends out RAs that indicate that this network is managed by DHCPv6.
You can also activate this workaround with a boot parameter in the installation system:. The entries in the routing configuration files look like this:. The route's destination is in the first column. This column may contain the IP address of a network or host or, in the case of reachable name servers, the fully qualified network or host name.
The network should be written in CIDR notation address with the associated routing prefix-length such as The keyword default indicates that the route is the default gateway in the same address family as the gateway. For devices without a gateway use explicit 0. The second column contains the default gateway or a gateway through which a host or network can be accessed.
The third column is deprecated; it used to contain the IPv4 netmask of the destination. For IPv6 routes, the default route, or when using a prefix-length CIDR notation in the first column, enter a dash - here.
The fourth column contains the name of the interface. For more information, see the routes man page. An optional fifth column can be used to specify special options. For details, see the routes man page.
conf keyword search. Up to six domains with a total of characters can be specified with the search option. When resolving a name that is not fully qualified, an attempt is made to generate one by attaching the individual search entries.
Up to three name servers can be specified with the nameserver option, each on a line of its own. Comments are preceded by hash mark or semicolon signs or ;. As an example, see Example conf should not be edited by hand. the name of the DNS forwarder that needs to be configured, for example bind or resolver. conf , for example:. For more information about netconfig , see the netconfig 8 man page man 8 netconfig. netconfig is a modular tool to manage additional network configuration settings.
It merges statically defined settings with settings provided by autoconfiguration mechanisms as DHCP or PPP according to a predefined policy. The required changes are applied to the system by calling the netconfig modules that are responsible for modifying a configuration file and restarting a service or a similar action.
netconfig recognizes three main actions. The netconfig modify and netconfig remove commands are used by daemons such as DHCP or PPP to provide or remove settings to netconfig. Only the netconfig update command is available for the user:. The netconfig modify command modifies the current interface and service specific dynamic settings and updates the network configuration.
Netconfig reads settings from standard input or from a file specified with the --lease-file FILENAME option and internally stores them until a system reboot or the next modify or remove action. Already existing settings for the same interface and service combination are overwritten. The netconfig remove command removes the dynamic settings provided by a modificatory action for the specified interface and service combination and updates the network configuration.
The netconfig update command updates the network configuration using current settings. This is useful when the policy or the static configuration has changed. The dynamic configuration settings provided by autoconfiguration tools such as DHCP or PPP are delivered directly by these tools with the netconfig modify and netconfig remove actions.
When NetworkManager is enabled, netconfig in policy mode auto uses only NetworkManager settings, ignoring settings from any other interfaces configured using the traditional ifup method.
If NetworkManager does not provide any setting, static settings are used as a fallback. A mixed usage of NetworkManager and the wicked method is not supported. For more information about netconfig , see man 8 netconfig.
In this file, shown in Example If no name server is implemented, all hosts to which an IP connection will be set up must be listed here. For each host, enter a line consisting of the IP address, the fully qualified host name, and the host name into the file.
The IP address must be at the beginning of the line and the entries separated by blanks and tabs. Comments are always preceded by the sign.
Here, network names are converted to network addresses. The format is similar to that of the hosts file, except the network names precede the addresses. See Example Name resolution—the translation of host and network names via the resolver library—is controlled by this file. This file is only used for programs linked to libc4 or libc5. Each parameter must always be entered on a separate line. Comments are preceded by a sign.
Table conf is shown in Example order hosts , bind. Specifies in which order the services are accessed for the name resolution. Available arguments are separated by blank spaces or commas :.
These parameters influence the name server spoofing but do not exert any influence on the network configuration. The specified domain name is separated from the host name after host name resolution as long as the host name includes the domain name. The introduction of the GNU C Library 2.
Refer to the nsswitch. conf 5 man page and The GNU C Library Reference Manual for details. A sample nsswitch. Comments are preceded by signs. The configuration options for NSS databases are listed in Table Mail aliases implemented by sendmail ; see man 5 aliases. User groups used by getgrent. See also the man page for group. Host names and IP addresses, used by gethostbyname and similar functions. Valid host and user lists in the network for controlling access permissions; see the netgroup 5 man page.
User passwords, used by getpwent ; see the passwd 5 man page. Network protocols, used by getprotoent ; see the protocols 5 man page. Remote procedure call names and addresses, used by getrpcbyname and similar functions. Shadow passwords of users, used by getspnam ; see the shadow 5 man page.
NIS, see also Chapter 4, Using NIS. can only be used as an extension for hosts and networks. can only be used as an extension for passwd , shadow and group. This file is used to configure nscd name service cache daemon.
See the nscd 8 and nscd. conf 5 man pages. By default, the system entries of passwd , groups and hosts are cached by nscd. This is important for the performance of directory services, like NIS and LDAP, because otherwise the network connection needs to be used for every access to names, groups or hosts. If the caching for passwd is activated, it usually takes about fifteen seconds until a newly added local user is recognized.
Reduce this waiting time by restarting nscd with:. The fully qualified host name is the host name with the domain name attached. This file must contain only one line in which the host name is set. It is read while the machine is booting. Before you write your configuration to the configuration files, you can test it. To set up a test configuration, use the ip command. To test the connection, use the ping command.
The command ip changes the network configuration directly without saving it in the configuration file. Unless you enter your configuration in the correct configuration files, the changed network configuration is lost on reboot. The ifconfig and route tools are obsolete. Use ip instead. ifconfig , for example, limits interface names to 9 characters.
ip is a tool to show and configure network devices, routing, policy routing, and tunnels. ip is a very complex tool. Its common syntax is ip OPTIONS OBJECT COMMAND. You can work with the following objects:.
If no command is given, the default command is used usually list. If you want to simulate losing the link as if the ethernet cable is unplugged or the connected switch is turned off, run. Be aware that carrier off requires support from the network device driver.
For example, to set the address of the interface eth0 to To have a working connection, you must also configure the default gateway. To set a gateway for your system, enter. To view additional useful information, specifically about virtual network devices, enter. In the output, you can find information about MAC addresses of your devices. To show all routes, use. For more information about using ip , enter ip help or see the man 8 ip manual page. The help option is also available for all ip subcommands, such as:.
If this works, ping displays a message to that effect. This indicates that the network link is functioning. ping does more than only test the function of the connection between two computers: it also provides some basic information about the quality of the connection.
The second-to-last line contains information about the number of transmitted packets, packet loss, and total time of ping running. As the destination, you can use a host name or IP address, for example, ping example. com or ping The program sends packets until you press Ctrl — C. If you only need to check the functionality of the connection, you can limit the number of the packets with the -c option.
For example to limit ping to three packets, enter ping -c 3 example. The default interval between two packets is one second. To change the interval, ping provides the option -i. For example, to increase the ping interval to ten seconds, enter ping -i 10 example.
In a system with multiple network devices, it is sometimes useful to send the ping through a specific interface address. To do so, use the -I option with the name of the selected device, for example, ping -I wlan1 example.
For more options and information about using ping, enter ping -h or see the ping 8 man page. For IPv6 addresses use the ping6 command.
Note, to ping link-local addresses, you must specify the interface with -I. The following command works, if the address is reachable via eth1 :. Apart from the configuration files described above, there are also systemd unit files and various scripts that load the network services while the machine is booting. These are started when the system is switched to the multi-user.
target target. Some of these unit files and scripts are described in Some Unit Files and Start-Up Scripts for Network Programs. For more information about systemd , see Chapter 15, The systemd Daemon and for more information about the systemd targets, see the man page of systemd.
special man systemd. target is the systemd target for networking, but its mean depends on the settings provided by the system administrator. target is the systemd target for a multiuser system with all required network services. Starts the rpcbind utility that converts RPC program numbers to universal addresses. It is needed for RPC services, such as an NFS server. A router is a networking device that delivers and receives data network packets to or from more than one network back and forth.
You often use a router to connect your local network to the remote network Internet or to connect local network segments. With SUSE Linux Enterprise Server you can build a router with features such as NAT Network Address Translation or advanced firewalling. The following are basic steps to turn SUSE Linux Enterprise Server into a router. Then provide a static IPv4 and IPv6 IP setup for the interfaces. Enabling forwarding disables several mechanisms, for example IPv6 does not accept an IPv6 RA router advertisement anymore, which also prevents the creation of a default route.
To accept an IPv6 RA from the router on an external, uplink, or ISP interface and create a default or also a more specific IPv6 route again, set:. Configure the firewall to masquerade traffic with NAT from the LAN into the WAN and to block inbound traffic on the WAN interface:. For some systems, there is a desire to implement network connections that comply to more than the standard data security or availability requirements of a typical Ethernet device.
In these cases, several Ethernet devices can be aggregated to a single bonding device. The configuration of the bonding device is done by means of bonding module options. The behavior is mainly affected by the mode of the bonding device. By default, this is active-backup which means that a different slave device will become active if the active slave fails.
The following bonding modes are available:. Packets are transmitted in round-robin fashion from the first to the last available interface. Provides fault tolerance and load balancing. Only one network interface is active. If it fails, a different interface becomes active. This setting is the default for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Provides fault tolerance. Traffic is split between all available interfaces based on the following policy: [ source MAC address XOR'd with destination MAC address XOR packet type ID modulo slave count] Requires support from the switch.
All traffic is broadcast on all interfaces. Requires support from the switch. Aggregates interfaces into groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Requires ethtool support in the interface drivers, and a switch that supports and is configured for IEEE Adaptive transmit load balancing. Requires ethtool support in the interface drivers but not switch support.
Adaptive load balancing. Using bonding devices is only of interest for machines where you have multiple real network cards available. In most configurations, this means that you should use the bonding configuration only in Dom0. Only if you have multiple network cards assigned to a VM Guest system it may also be useful to set up the bond in a VM Guest. These packets are not supported by Power firmware. Therefore bonding modes 5 and 6 are unsupported by ibmveth. Use Add and change the Device Type to Bond.
Proceed with Next. Select how to assign the IP address to the bonding device. Three methods are at your disposal:. In the Bond Slaves tab, select the Ethernet devices that should be included into the bond by activating the related check box. Without this parameter, the data integrity is not checked regularly. Click Next and leave YaST with OK to create the device.
In specific network environments such as High Availability , there are cases when you need to replace a bonding slave interface with another one. The reason may be a constantly failing network device.
The solution is to set up hotplugging of bonding slaves. The bond is configured as usual according to man 5 ifcfg-bonding , for example:. The reason is that the slave interface is controlled by the bond master. rules need to be changed to match the device by bus ID udev KERNELS keyword equal to "SysFS BusID" as visible in hwinfo --netcard instead of by MAC address.
This allows replacement of defective hardware a network card in the same slot but with a different MAC and prevents confusion when the bond changes the MAC address of all its slaves. At boot time, the systemd network.
service does not wait for the hotplug slaves, but for the bond to become ready, which requires at least one available slave. When one of the slave interfaces gets removed unbind from NIC driver, rmmod of the NIC driver or true PCI hotplug remove from the system, the kernel removes it from the bond automatically. When a new card is added to the system replacement of the hardware in the slot , udev renames it using the bus-based persistent name rule to the name of the slave, and calls ifup for it.
The ifup call automatically joins it into the bond. which are synonyms and refer to the same concept. The term Network Teaming is used to refer to the new implementation of this concept. The main difference between bonding and Network Teaming is that teaming supplies a set of small kernel modules responsible for providing an interface for teamd instances.
Everything else is handled in user space. This is different from the original bonding implementation which contains all of its functionality exclusively in the kernel. For a comparison refer to Table Both implementations, bonding and Network Teaming, can be used in parallel.
Network Teaming is an alternative to the existing bonding implementation. It does not replace bonding. Network Teaming can be used for different use cases.
The two most important use cases are explained later and involve:. Currently, there is no YaST module to support creating a teaming device. You need to configure Network Teaming manually. The general procedure is shown below which can be applied for all your Network Teaming configurations:.
Make sure you have all the necessary packages installed. Install the packages libteam-tools , libteamdctl0 , and python-libteam. Usually it will be ifcfg-team0. If you need more than one Network Teaming device, give them ascending numbers.
This configuration file contains several variables which are explained in the man pages see man ifcfg and man ifcfg-team. Remove the configuration files of the interfaces which will be used for the teaming device usually ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth1. It is recommended to make a backup and remove both files. Wicked will re-create the configuration files with the necessary parameters for teaming. In case you need additional debug information, use the option --debug all after the all subcommand. Check the status of the Network Teaming device.
This can be done by the following commands:. In case you need to change something in the ifcfg-team0 file afterward, reload its configuration with:. Do not use systemctl for starting or stopping the teaming device! Instead, use the wicked command as shown above. If you really do not need the configuration anymore, you can also remove the file.
Load balancing is used to improve bandwidth. Use the following configuration file to create a Network Teaming device with load balancing capabilities. Proceed with Procedure Check the output with teamdctl. Controls the start of the teaming device. The value of auto means, the interface will be set up when the network service is available and will be started automatically on every reboot. In case you need to control the device yourself and prevent it from starting automatically , set STARTMODE to manual.
Sets a static IP address here Specifies one or more devices which should be aggregated to create the Network Teaming device. Defines a link watcher to monitor the state of subordinate devices. The default value ethtool checks only if the device is up and accessible.
This makes this check fast enough. However, it does not check if the device can really send or receive packets. The Network Teaming device is considered to be up only if the replies are received.
Defines the delay in milliseconds between the link coming up or down and the runner being notified. Failover is used to ensure high availability of a critical Network Teaming device by involving a parallel backup network device. The backup network device is running all the time and takes over if and when the main device fails. Use the following configuration file to create a Network Teaming device with failover capabilities.
The value of auto means the interface will be set up when the network service is available and will be started automatically on every reboot.
Only if the replies are received, the Network Teaming device is considered to be up. VLAN is an abbreviation of Virtual Local Area Network. It allows the running of multiple logical virtual Ethernets over one single physical Ethernet. It logically splits the network into different broadcast domains so that packets are only switched between ports that are designated for the same VLAN. vlan0 , bound to the IP address vlan1 , bound to the IP address Enable the VLAN tags on your switch.
To use load balancing for your team device, your switch needs to be capable of Link Aggregation Control Protocol LACP Consult your hardware manual about the details. Decide if you want to use load balancing or failover for your team device. Set up your team device as described in Section Contains the real interface to use for the VLAN interface, here our team device team0. Specifies a unique ID for the VLAN. IPADDR from Software-defined networking SDN means separating the system that controls where traffic is sent the control plane from the underlying system that forwards traffic to the selected destination the data plane , also called the forwarding plane.
This means that the functions previously fulfilled by a single, usually inflexible switch can now be separated between a switch data plane and its controller control plane. In this model, the controller is programmable and can be very flexible and adapt quickly to changing network conditions.
Open vSwitch is software that implements a distributed virtual multilayer switch that is compatible with the OpenFlow protocol. OpenFlow allows a controller application to modify the configuration of a switch. OpenFlow is layered onto the TCP protocol and is implemented in a range of hardware and software.
A single controller can thus drive multiple, very different switches. Software-defined networking with Open vSwitch brings several advantages with it, especially when you used together with virtual machines:. Network dynamics are traceable and external software can be enabled to respond to them. You can apply and manipulate tags in network packets to identify which machine they are coming from or going to and maintain other networking context.
Tagging rules can be configured and migrated. Open vSwitch implements the GRE protocol Generic Routing Encapsulation. This allows you, for example, to connect private VM networks to each other.
Open vSwitch can be used on its own, but is designed to integrate with networking hardware and can control hardware switches. If you plan to use Open vSwitch together with the KVM hypervisor, additionally install tunctl. If you plan to use Open vSwitch together with the Xen hypervisor, additionally install openvswitch-kmp-xen. Either restart the computer or use systemctl to start the Open vSwitch service immediately:.
To check whether Open vSwitch was activated correctly, use:. Open vSwitch consists of several components. Among them are a kernel module and various user space components. The kernel module is used for accelerating the data path, but is not necessary for a minimal Open vSwitch installation.
The central executables of Open vSwitch are its two daemons. When you start the openvswitch service, you are indirectly starting them. The main Open vSwitch daemon ovs-vswitchd provides the implementation of a switch. The Open vSwitch database daemon ovsdb-server serves the database that stores the configuration and state of Open vSwitch.
Open vSwitch also comes with several utilities that help you work with it. The following list is not exhaustive, but instead describes important commands only. Create, upgrade, compact, and query Open vSwitch databases. Do transactions on Open vSwitch databases. Configure a running ovs-vswitchd or ovsdb-server daemon. Create, modify, visualize, and delete data paths. Using this tool can interfere with ovs-vswitchd also performing data path management. Therefore, it is often used for diagnostics only.
ovs-dpctl-top creates a top -like visualization for data paths. Manage any switches adhering to the OpenFlow protocol. ovs-ofctl is not limited to interacting with Open vSwitch. Provides a high-level interface to the configuration database. It can be used to query and modify the database.
In effect, it shows the status of ovs-vswitchd and can be used to configure it. The following example configuration uses the Wicked network service that is used by default on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
To learn more about Wicked, see Section When you have installed and started Open vSwitch , proceed as follows:. To configure a bridge for use by your virtual machine, create a file with content like this:.
To add more devices, append additional lines for each of them to the file:. The SUFFIX can be any alphanumeric string. However, to avoid overwriting a previous definition, make sure the SUFFIX of each device is unique. Instead of br0 , you can use any name you want. However, the file name needs to begin with ifcfg-. To learn about further options, refer to the man pages of ifcfg man 5 ifcfg and ifcfg-ovs-bridge man 5 ifcfg-ovs-bridge.
When Wicked is done, it should output the name of the bridge and next to it the state up. After having created the bridge as described in Section To be able to best use the capabilities of Wicked, make some further changes to the bridge configured before. Additionally, set BOOTPROTO to none. The file should now look like this:.
The new port device tap0 will be configured in the next step. To be able to use this tap device from a virtual machine started as a user who is not root , append:. If you did not change the name, that should be eth0. After having created the bridge as described before in Section Since libvirt has some support for Open vSwitch bridges already, you can use the bridge created in Section This will open your default text editor.
If you use any of these tools, your configuration can break. Administration Guide Deployment Guide Upgrade Guide GNOME User Guide AutoYaST Guide Security and Hardening Guide System Analysis and Tuning Guide RMT Guide Storage Administration Guide Virtualization Guide Docker Open Source Engine Guide Installation Quick Start Modules and Extensions Quick Start Xen to KVM Migration Guide Virtualization Best Practices.
Applies to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 SP1. Figure Example IP Address binary : IP Address decimal : IP address Specific Addresses. x Important: IBM Z: IPv6 Support. Mobility IPv6 makes it possible to assign several addresses to one network interface at the same time. Secure Communication With IPv4, network security is an add-on function.
Backward Compatibility Realistically, it would be impossible to switch the entire Internet from IPv4 to IPv6 at one time. Custom Tailored Services through Multicasting With IPv4, some services, such as SMB, need to broadcast their packets to all hosts in the local network.
Unicast Addresses of this type are associated with exactly one network interface. Multicast Addresses of this type relate to a group of network interfaces. Anycast Addresses of this type are related to a group of interfaces.
Various IPv6 Prefixes. Public Topology The first part which also contains one of the prefixes mentioned above is used to route packets through the public Internet. Site Topology The second part contains routing information about the subnet to which to deliver the packet.
Interface ID The third part identifies the interface to which to deliver the packet. IPv4 Compatible Addresses The IPv6 address is formed by the IPv4 address and a prefix consisting of 96 zero bits. IPv4 Addresses Mapped to IPv6 This type of address specifies a pure IPv4 address in IPv6 notation. Local Addresses There are two address types for local use: link-local This type of address can only be used in the local subnet.
site-local Packets with this type of address may be routed to other subnets, but not to the wider Internet—they must remain inside the organization's own network.
IPv6 Tunnel Broker This method relies on special servers that provide dedicated tunnels for IPv6 hosts. org All information needed to start your own IPv6 network. RFC The fundamental RFC about IPv6. IPv6 Essentials A book describing all the important aspects of the topic is IPv6 Essentials by Silvia Hagen ISBN Note: MDNS and. local Domain Names. Tip: IBM Z: Hotpluggable Network Cards. Note: NetworkManager Provided by Workstation Extension.
Note: IBM Z and DHCP. Click Next. To activate the configuration, click OK. Note: Interface Activation and Link Detection. Note: Aliases Are a Compatibility Feature. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings. Go to the Hardware tab.
Tip: NFS as a Root File System. The following options are available: Firewall Disabled This option is available only if the firewall is disabled and the firewall does not run. Automatically Assign Zone This option is available only if the firewall is enabled.
Internal Zone Unprotected The firewall is running, but does not enforce any rules to protect this interface. Demilitarized Zone A demilitarized zone is an additional line of defense in front of an internal network and the hostile Internet.
External Zone The firewall is running on this interface and fully protects it against other—presumably hostile—network traffic. To activate the new network configuration, confirm the settings. Note: Route Prioritization.
Warning: CTC is no Longer Supported. Warning: IUCV is no Longer Supported. Interface Generic network interface functions, such as taking the link up or down, assigning an MTU, etc. dhcp, org. auto Address configuration services for DHCP, IPv4 zeroconf, etc. A built-in DHCPv4 client and a built-in DHCPv6 client. service; enabled wicked show all wicked show IFNAME.
wicked show-xml all wicked show-xml IFNAME. firmware: iSCSI Boot Firmware Table iBFT compat: ifcfg files—implemented for compatibility. firewall extension: these scripts can apply firewall rules. Note: Configuration Files. Note: Using DHCPv6. Destination Gateway Netmask Interface Options. conf , for example: debug attempts:1 timeout Our domain search example. com We use dns. com modify The netconfig modify command modifies the current interface and service specific dynamic settings and updates the network configuration.
remove The netconfig remove command removes the dynamic settings provided by a modificatory action for the specified interface and service combination and updates the network configuration.
update The netconfig update command updates the network configuration using current settings. com jupiter com venus. loopback order hosts , bind Specifies in which order the services are accessed for the name resolution. trim domainname The specified domain name is separated from the host name after host name resolution as long as the host name includes the domain name.
We have named running order hosts bind Allow multiple address multi on. passwd: compat group: compat hosts: files dns networks: files dns services: db files protocols: db files rpc: files ethers: files netmasks: files netgroup: files nis publickey: files bootparams: files automount: files nis aliases: files nis shadow: compat.
aliases Mail aliases implemented by sendmail ; see man 5 aliases. ethers Ethernet addresses. netmasks List of networks and their subnet masks.
Linux offers the necessary networking tools and features for integration into all types of network structures. Network access using a network card can be configured with YaST. Manual configuration is also possible. In this chapter only the fundamental mechanisms and the relevant network configuration files are covered. It is not a single network protocol, but a family of network protocols that offer various services.
RFC stands for Request for Comments. RFCs are documents that describe various Internet protocols and implementation procedures for the operating system and its applications.
The RFC documents describe the setup of Internet protocols. Transmission Control Protocol: a connection-oriented secure protocol. The data to transmit is first sent by the application as a stream of data and converted into the appropriate format by the operating system.
The data arrives at the respective application on the destination host in the original data stream format it was initially sent. TCP determines whether any data has been lost or jumbled during the transmission. TCP is implemented wherever the data sequence matters. User Datagram Protocol: a connectionless, insecure protocol.
The data to transmit is sent in the form of packets generated by the application. The order in which the data arrives at the recipient is not guaranteed and data loss is possible. UDP is suitable for record-oriented applications. It features a smaller latency period than TCP. In addition, it provides a special echo mode that can be viewed using the program ping. Internet Group Management Protocol: This protocol controls machine behavior when implementing IP multicast.
As shown in Figure The actual network layer is the insecure data transfer via IP Internet protocol. On top of IP, TCP transmission control protocol guarantees, to a certain extent, security of the data transfer. The IP layer is supported by the underlying hardware-dependent protocol, such as Ethernet. The diagram provides one or two examples for each layer. The layers are ordered according to abstraction levels. The lowest layer is very close to the hardware. The uppermost layer, however, is almost a complete abstraction from the hardware.
Every layer has its own special function. The special functions of each layer are mostly implicit in their description. The data link and physical layers represent the physical network used, such as Ethernet. Almost all hardware protocols work on a packet-oriented basis. The data to transmit is collected into packets it cannot be sent all at once. Packets are normally quite smaller, as the network hardware can be a limiting factor.
The maximum size of a data packet on an Ethernet is about fifteen hundred bytes. If more data is transferred, more data packets need to be sent by the operating system. For the layers to serve their designated functions, additional information regarding each layer must be saved in the data packet. This takes place in the header of the packet. Every layer attaches a small block of data, called the protocol header, to the front of each emerging packet.
The proof sum is located at the end of the packet, not at the beginning. This simplifies things for the network hardware.
When an application sends data over the network, the data passes through each layer, all implemented in the Linux kernel except the physical layer. Each layer is responsible for preparing the data so it can be passed to the next layer. The lowest layer is ultimately responsible for sending the data.
The entire procedure is reversed when data is received. Like the layers of an onion, in each layer the protocol headers are removed from the transported data. Finally, the transport layer is responsible for making the data available for use by the applications at the destination. In this manner, one layer only communicates with the layer directly above or below it. Likewise, it is irrelevant for the data line which kind of data is transmitted, as long as packets are in the correct format.
The discussion in this section is limited to IPv4 networks. For information about IPv6 protocol, the successor to IPv4, refer to Section Every computer on the Internet has a unique bit address. These 32 bits or 4 bytes are normally written as illustrated in the second row in Example In decimal form, the four bytes are written in the decimal number system, separated by periods. The IP address is assigned to a host or a network interface. It can be used only once throughout the world.
There are exceptions to this rule, but these are not relevant to the following passages. The points in IP addresses indicate the hierarchical system.
Until the s, IP addresses were strictly categorized in classes. However, this system proved too inflexible and was discontinued. Now, classless routing CIDR, classless interdomain routing is used. Netmasks are used to define the address range of a subnet. If two hosts are in the same subnet, they can reach each other directly. If they are not in the same subnet, they need the address of a gateway that handles all the traffic for the subnet.
If the result is identical, both IP addresses are in the same local network. If there are differences, the remote IP address, and thus the remote interface, can only be reached over a gateway. To understand how the netmask works, look at Example The netmask consists of 32 bits that identify how much of an IP address belongs to the network.
All those bits that are 1 mark the corresponding bit in the IP address as belonging to the network. All bits that are 0 mark bits inside the subnet.
This means that the more bits are 1 , the smaller the subnet is. Because the netmask always consists of several successive 1 bits, it is also possible to count the number of bits in the netmask. In Example To give another example: all machines connected with the same Ethernet cable are usually located in the same subnet and are directly accessible.
Even when the subnet is physically divided by switches or bridges, these hosts can still be reached directly. IP addresses outside the local subnet can only be reached if a gateway is configured for the target network. In the most common case, there is only one gateway that handles all traffic that is external. However, it is also possible to configure several gateways for different subnets.
If a gateway has been configured, all external IP packets are sent to the appropriate gateway. This gateway then attempts to forward the packets in the same manner—from host to host—until it reaches the destination host or the packet's TTL time to live expires. This is the netmask AND any address in the network, as shown in Example This address cannot be assigned to any hosts. The above example therefore results in The address A connection can be set up to your own machine with this address and with all addresses from the complete With IPv6 there is only one loopback address Because IP addresses must be unique all over the world, you cannot select random addresses.
There are three address domains to use if you want to set up a private IP-based network. These cannot get any connection from the rest of the Internet, because they cannot be transmitted over the Internet. These address domains are specified in RFC and listed in Table x — ch invented the WWW in , the number of Internet hosts has grown from a few thousand to about a hundred million.
As mentioned, an IPv4 address consists of only 32 bits. Also, quite a few IP addresses are lost—they cannot be used because of the way in which networks are organized. The number of addresses available in your subnet is two to the power of the number of bits, minus two. A subnet has, for example, 2, 6, or 14 addresses available. To connect hosts to the Internet, for example, you need a subnet with IP addresses, from which only are usable, because two IP addresses are needed for the structure of the subnet itself: the broadcast and the base network address.
Under the current IPv4 protocol, DHCP or NAT network address translation are the typical mechanisms used to circumvent the potential address shortage. Combined with the convention to keep private and public address spaces separate, these methods can certainly mitigate the shortage.
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Custom Tailored Services through Multicasting With IPv4, some services, such as SMB, need to broadcast their packets to all hosts in the local network. While regulators and companies can occasionally come into conflict, the agencies also serve an important role in providing rules of the road and certainty for business models. To enable it temporarily until the next reboot, enter modprobe -i ipv6 as root. Overall, we see fintech as empowering people who have been left behind by antiquated financial systems, giving them real-time insights, tips, and tools they need to turn their financial dreams into a reality. Enter the name this entry is case-sensitive and select Next.Generating energy with no or few greenhouse gas emissions will reduce air pollution. As is the case with IPv4, an interface can be assigned to form part of a certain subnet. IPv4 Addresses Mapped to IPv6 This type of address specifies a pure IPv4 address in IPv6 binary options exchanger. Remove the configuration files of the interfaces which will be used for the teaming device usually ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth1. User Datagram Protocol: a connectionless, binary options exchanger, insecure protocol.